Playing sounds and music#
Sound or music?#
SF::Sound is a lightweight object that plays loaded audio data from a SF::SoundBuffer. It should be used for small sounds that can fit in memory and should suffer no lag when they are played. Examples are gun shots, foot steps, etc.
SF::Music doesn't load all the audio data into memory, instead it streams it on the fly from the source file. It is typically used to play compressed music that lasts several minutes, and would otherwise take many seconds to load and eat hundreds of MB in memory.
Loading and playing a sound#
As mentioned above, the sound data is not stored directly in SF::Sound but in a separate class named SF::SoundBuffer. This class encapsulates the audio data, which is basically an array of 16-bit signed integers (called "audio samples"). A sample is the amplitude of the sound signal at a given point in time, and an array of samples therefore represents a full sound.
In fact, the SF::Sound/SF::SoundBuffer classes work the same way as SF::Sprite/SF::Texture from the graphics module. So if you understand how sprites and textures work together, you can apply the same concept to sounds and sound buffers.
You can load a sound buffer from a file on disk with its
from_file class method:
As with everything else, you can also load an audio file from memory (
from_memory) or from a custom input stream (
SFML supports the audio file formats WAV, OGG/Vorbis and FLAC. Due to licensing issues MP3 is not supported.
You can also load a sound buffer directly from an array of samples, in the case they originate from another source:
buffer.from_samples(samples, samples.size, 2, 44100)
from_samples loads a raw array of samples rather than an audio file, it requires additional arguments in order to have a complete description of the sound. The first one (third argument) is the number of channels; 1 channel defines a mono sound, 2 channels define a stereo sound, etc. The second additional attribute (fourth argument) is the sample rate; it defines how many samples must be played per second in order to reconstruct the original sound.
Now that the audio data is loaded, we can play it with a SF::Sound instance.
# load something into the sound buffer... buffer = ... sound = SF::Sound.new(buffer) sound.play
The cool thing is that you can assign the same sound buffer to multiple sounds if you want. You can even play them together without any issues.
Sounds (and music) are played in a separate thread. This means that you are free to do whatever you want after calling
play (except destroying the sound or its data, of course), the sound will continue to play until it's finished or explicitly stopped.
Playing a music#
music = SF::Music.from_file("music.ogg") music.play
It is important to note that, unlike all other SFML resources, the loading class method only opens the file. The music is not really loaded, this method merely opens it. The data is only loaded later, when the music is played. It also helps to keep in mind that the audio file has to remain available as long as it is played.
The other loading methods of SF::Music follow the same convention:
Now that you are able to load and play a sound or music, let's see what you can do with it.
To control playback, the following methods are available:
playstarts or resumes playback
stopstops playback and rewind
playing_offset=changes the current playing position
# start playback sound.play # advance to 2 seconds sound.playing_offset = SF.seconds(2) # pause playback sound.pause # resume playback sound.play # stop playback and rewind sound.stop
status method returns the current status of a sound or music, you can use it to know whether it is stopped, playing or paused.
Sound and music playback is also controlled by a few attributes which can be changed at any moment.
The pitch is a factor that changes the perceived frequency of the sound: greater than 1 plays the sound at a higher pitch, less than 1 plays the sound at a lower pitch, and 1 leaves it unchanged. Changing the pitch has a side effect: it impacts the playing speed.
sound.pitch = 1.2
The volume is... the volume. The value ranges from 0 (mute) to 100 (full volume). The default value is 100, which means that you can't make a sound louder than its initial volume.
sound.volume = 50
The loop attribute controls whether the sound/music automatically loops or not. If it loops, it will restart playing from the beginning when it's finished, again and again until you explicitly call
stop. If not set to loop, it will stop automatically when it's finished.
sound.loop = true
More attributes are available, but they are related to spatialization and are explained in the corresponding tutorial.
Too many sounds#
One source of error is when you try to create a huge number of sounds. SFML internally has a limit; it can vary depending on the OS, but you should never exceed 256. This limit is the number of SF::Sound and SF::Music instances that can exist simultaneously. A good way to stay below the limit is to destroy (or recycle) unused sounds when they are no longer needed. This only applies if you have to manage a really large amount of sounds and music, of course.
Destroying the music source while it plays#
Remember that a music needs its source as long as it is played. A music file on your disk probably won't be deleted or moved while your application plays it, however things get more complicated when you play a music from a file in memory, or from a custom input stream:
# we start with a music file in memory (imagine that we extracted it from a zip archive) file_data = ... # we play it music = SF::Music.from_memory(file_data) music.play # "ok, it seems that we don't need the source file any longer" file_data.clear # ERROR: the music was still streaming the contents of file_data! The behavior is now undefined